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Grafting is a method of asexual plant propagation that joins plant parts from different plants together so they will heal and grow as one plant. This technique is used to propagate plants that do not root well from cuttings, to utilize superior root systems, or to maintain clonal production. Nursery workers and fruit tree producers must know how to graft. Hobbyists also can learn this useful technique.
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Vegetable or fruit or root? Melons and sweet potatoes refuse to be bound by human classification. Most people will agree that an apple is a fruit and a carrot is a vegetable. Yet discussions can heat up when trying to agree on whether tomatoes and melons are fruits or vegetables.
World Vegetable Center researchers are sometimes asked about the definition of vegetables, but the answer is not that straightforward. In botany, the seed-bearing parts that develop from the ripened ovary of a flowering plant are considered fruits.
Tomatoes, chilies and melons are therefore fruits botanically speaking. By the same token, spinach is a leaf, a broccoli is a flower, and a carrot is a root. These botanical terms refer to plant parts, not to the whole plant. There is no botanical definition of a vegetable. Most people will think of vegetables as edible greens, herbaceous meaning, non-woody short-duration plants that can be grown in gardens, or plants that are eaten at the immature stage.
But there are exceptions, as not all vegetables are green, some grow from trees such as the leaves of the moringa tree, and tomatoes really taste better when they are mature.
Vegetables are therefore commonly defined based on their culinary or cultural uses. Vegetables are typically consumed during the main part of the meal rather than as a snack or dessert, in part because most fruits are sweet and most vegetables are not. It is also important to discriminate between vegetables and root crops such as potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava and yams. In horticultural courses around the world, these root crops are typically considered vegetables, sometimes called root vegetables.
However, in terms of culinary uses, these starchy vegetables are distinct because they are high in energy and make us feel full, but are low in essential minerals and vitamins. Food grains and grain legumes are similarly starchy in nature. Of these starchy four, nowadays only the mungbean breeding program remains.
Even the World Vegetable Center has adjusted its definition of vegetables over time. Based on the above considerations, we propose to define vegetables as mostly herbaceous annual plants of which some portion is eaten, either cooked or raw, during the principal part of the meal to complement starchy food and other food items. When defining vegetables based on cultural use, the problem arises that some plants are and are not vegetables at the same time.
The leaves of sweet potato, cassava and cowpea are eaten as vegetables, but their roots or grains are not. Potatoes are culturally considered vegetables in South Asia, but are a considered a starchy staple in most other parts of the world. Papayas and mangoes are consumed as vegetables when eaten at the immature stage, but consumed as fruits when they are mature. Likewise, mungbean and soybean are vegetables when used as bean sprouts, but are starchy food items when used as grain.
Melons are a case in point. Melons and watermelons are both annual herbaceous species and part of the Cucurbitaceae family. Most cultivated species in this family are culturally considered vegetables, including cucumber, pumpkins, zucchini, luffa, and bitter gourd, and some melons are eaten as cooked vegetables in some countries. Melons and watermelons share similar cultural practices with other cultivated cucurbits. These crops are often classified as vegetables, even in FAO statistics.
The definition we propose is a working definition of vegetables. Arriving at an indisputable, unassailable definition of vegetables is virtually impossible as the group is incredibly diverse in terms of physiology, nutrition contents, and cultural uses—there are different species of vegetables in the WorldVeg genebank alone!
What we can perhaps all agree on is that eating more of them would be a good thing. Lettuce agree to disagree on what constitutes a vegetable! The fight of mushrooms in farmland. Biotechnology at the service of humanity Spark Chronicles, 29 NovemberUn plan mundial para conservar la diversidad de frutas y hortalizas A en verde, 10 NovemberWhat is a vegetable?
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If someone has been seriously injured, become seriously ill, or died as a result of work - phone us on straight away. Notifications made through our online form won't be monitored between 2pm on Friday 24 December and 8. For more information see our page reduced holiday hours - notifications and general enquiries. The purpose of these guidelines is to provide guidance on safe work practices for the use and maintenance of horticultural mobile elevating work platforms. These guidelines outline the obligations of duty holders under the Health and Safety in Employment Act HSE Act , and summarise the relevant part of the industry standards. While this guidance has not been updated to reflect current work health and safety legislation the Health and Safety at Work Act and regulations , it may still contain relevant information and practices to keep workers and others healthy and safe.
Rejuvenation of old orchards, top working, frame Definition, importance and limitation of dry land horticulture, present status and future scope.
Siblings and in-laws: talking about family relationships. Compare agriculture. Gardening - general words. Related words horticultural. In Florida, women farmers run more than 8, farms and horticulture operations on their own or as partners. Examples of horticulture. These include commercial maize production, horticulture , tree crops, dairy, and cattle ranching.
Plants can be propagated, or multiplied, in several different ways. Most people are familiar with growing new plants from seeds, but new plants can also be created by cutting off a portion of an established plant. Cuttings can be made from any part of the plant. Most frequently, however, either a stem or leaf is used.
Edited and revised by David C. Plant propagation is the process of creating new plants.
Amenity horticulturists work for employers as varied as the National Trust and private gardens to media organisations. What does an amenity horticulturist do? Typical employers Qualifications and training Key skills. Amenity horticulturists can find themselves doing anything from clipping lawns to managing forests. The typical responsibilities of the job include:. The majority of entrants into the profession hold a horticultural qualification.
Grafting or graftage  is a horticultural technique whereby tissues of plants are joined so as to continue their growth together. The success of this joining requires that the vascular tissues grow together and such joining is called inosculation. The technique is most commonly used in asexual propagation of commercially grown plants for the horticultural and agricultural trades. In most cases, one plant is selected for its roots and this is called the stock or rootstock. The other plant is selected for its stems , leaves , flowers , or fruits and is called the scion or cion. In stem grafting, a common grafting method, a shoot of a selected, desired plant cultivar is grafted onto the stock of another type. In another common form called bud grafting, a dormant side bud is grafted onto the stem of another stock plant, and when it has inosculated successfully, it is encouraged to grow by pruning off the stem of the stock plant just above the newly grafted bud. For successful grafting to take place, the vascular cambium tissues of the stock and scion plants must be placed in contact with each other.
Horticultural crops are grown from seeds for three principal reasons: To produce commercial crops Top work to change scion in established orchard.
Horticultural products include all products, raw or processed, that arise from the horticultural industry. This broadly inclusive definition is appropriate and even necessary in a time when traceability from the producer to the ultimate consumer is of growing interest to government and industry. Products from horticultural industry that go to market still respiring fresh produce are clearly horticultural products. When juiced, sliced or pureed, fermented, frozen, preserved, canned, dried, irradiated, or used in an ornamental construct such as a flower arrangement they remain, in our view, a horticultural product.
Technologies for cultivation of crops are changing over the years. Adherence to the principles of conservation, high input-use efficiency and higher productivity with optimum inputs and the very idea of crop production as a business venture; all these are leading to increased adoption of high technological high-tech crop production practises. In India, the tempo of adoption of high-tech methods is receiving a shot in the arm by the promotion of such technologies through governmental interventions. The trend of governmental support to the small farmers to acquire technologies like drip irrigation, fertigation and protected structures etc.
Explanation of the diagram. Grafting including budding is a process by which a portion of the shoot system or root system of the same or different plants, brought into intimate contact, unite and grow together anatomically, and interact physiologically as a single functional unit whole plant. Scion is the upper of the two or more pieces brought into contact during the process of grafting, which grows into all or part of the shoot system. Stock is the lowest of the pieces brought into contact during the process of grafting, which develops into the root system and in some cases the lower portion of the shoot system below the graft union. Similar terms are rootstock and understock.
Any business or individual in the state of Maine offering plants for sale must have a license to sell nursery stock Title 7 MRSA sec. Inspecting plants for sale helps prevent the spread of pests that can easily move from one area to another on plant material and helps to ensure the sale of healthy plants to the end consumer. When inspecting, horticulture staff survey the growing and sales area for:.